The EasyNET software is developed for user-friendly processing of accurate geodetic measurement. It is focused on automatic processing of geodetic variables measured by total stations, level instruments and gyro-theodolites. These measurements are automatically adjusted by the method of least squares. The result of this process is an adjusted spatial geodetic network. Originality and uniqueness of the software is based on application of advanced computing methods, which provide an exact evaluation of geodetic measurements and the best results. The software is designed for MS Windows in Czech and English language versions.
The most significant advantage of the present software is an method for automatic detection and rejection of outlying measurements. This method, which was designed and thoroughly tested by authors of the EasyNET software, is based on a robust adjustment of geodetic measurement.
The software combines all data (measurements and user settings) into a file (the project), allowing easy data transfer and collaboration between different users. In addition to many result spreadsheets, there is a graphical output showing adjusted geodetic network with error ellipses (Fig. 13) and a text protocol of a network adjustment (Fig. 14). The graphical output is possible to export to bitmap format or AutoCAD drawing exchange format (DXF).
Basic features of the EasyNET software are briefly described in the following paragraphs:
1. Detection of measurement sets
The EasyNET software processes accurate geodetic measurements, which are measured in both positions of telescope (first and second face) and they are grouped into the measurement sets. Measurement sets (specific sequences of geodetic variables) are identified and graphically highlighted (Fig. 1
). If measurements are measured only in one telescope position, the software uses an automatic mirroring, i.e. adds records simulated in the opposite position (even with axis errors of a total station).
2. Measurement control
The aim of the measurement control is a detection of gross errors, which are naturally present in geodetic data. This control mechanism checks whether measurements have real (expected) values and they fulfill user-specified critical values (limit differences between the first and second position of a telescope; limit differences between sets). If these limit differences are exceeded, all suspected measurements are marked (Fig. 1
, Fig. 2
, Fig. 3
) and the network adjustment process is interrupted. For these cases, the user is equipped with many functions to edit the measurements.
3. Inclusion of supplementary measurement
Besides the main geodetic variables measured by total stations (slope distances, horizontal directions and zenith angles), the software is able to adjust supplementary measurement. They are independently measured slope distances, bearings measured by a gyrotheodolite, height differences (Fig. 4
) and vertical plumbing measurements.
4. Measurement reduction
The zenith angles and slope distances are reduced to direct line of network point marks (the height difference between an instrument and a target; the Earth’s curvature). The measured distances can be further reduced to the sea level and cartographic projection. It is possible to use different cartographic projections by different scale factors at the individual network points. In the case of an unscaled local geodetic network with minimally reduced distances, the sea level is set to a network elevation center.
5. Robust calculation of approximate coordinates of network points
The software uses an automatic calculation of approximate coordinates of geodetic network points. These coordinates are determined using the basic geodetic methods (forward intersection, resection, polar method, etc.), which are used repeatedly from individual network points in all possible combinations. For a maximum elimination of gross errors, the coordinates are finally determined as the median of all calculated values.
6. Detection of gross errors
The detection method is based on a comparison of differences between directly measured (reduced) values and values calculated from the approximate coordinates of network points. If the limit differences are exceeded, all suspected measurements are marked (Fig. 5
7. A priori accuracy analysis of geodetic network
The aim of a priori analysis of geodetic network is to estimate a priori standard deviations of main measured values (slope distances, horizontal directions and zenith angles). This estimation is very important for determining the correct weights of measurements, which are necessary for correct setting of an outlier detection method. The software provides two types of estimation called the internal and external accuracy of network.
The internal accuracy method determines sample standard deviations. The samples include random values of geodetic variables repeatedly measured by a total station at individual standpoints (multiple measurement sets, Fig. 6). These standard deviations describe only random measurement errors.
The external accuracy method has two parts. The first is based on an adjustment of slope distances and zenith angles, which are measured between each two points of the geodetic network (values measured in opposite directions, Fig. 7). The second uses the adjustment of horizontal directions, which are measured among each trio of network points (angular misclosures, Fig. 8). These standard deviations describe both random and systematic measurement errors.
8. Detection of outliers
This advanced detection method evaluates a magnitude of measurement residuals determined by the iterative robust adjustment process (Fig. 9
). This iterative process leads to gradual reduction of the influence of outliers, thus obtaining estimates of geodetic variables nearly independent of outlying measurements.
9. Adjustment of spatial geodetic network (by the method of least squares)
Since a total station generally measured slope distances, horizontal directions and zenith angles together, the software prefers a spatial geodetic network adjustment by the method of least squares. In this case all measured values are adjusted together, thus obtaining homogeneous estimation of coordinates of spatial network points (Fig. 10
, Fig. 11
, Fig. 12
Depending on the number of fixed network points and supplementary measurement, the software provides the network adjustment in the following variants:
- free geodetic network (free adjustment)
- with inner constraints for translation and rotation of network
- partly fixed geodetic network (minimally constrained adjustment)
- with a fixed point and inner constraints for network rotation
- with a fixed bearing and inner constraints for network translation
- fixed geodetic network (fully constrained adjustment)
- with two or more fixed points
- with a fixed point and fixed bearing
10. Transformation of adjusted network
The software provides a linear transformation of coordinates of adjusted geodetic network points. It is spatial linear transformation, which consist of a horizontal congruent transformation and a vertical translation. Users choose between “Transformation with adjustment” method (Fig. 15
, Fig. 16
) or “Point and bearing” method (Fig. 18
, Fig. 19
). In the first case the transformation parameters are determined by the Helmert transformation (by the least square adjustment). It is possible to extend this method by the detection of outlying coordinates (Fig. 17
). The “Point and bearing” method transforms coordinates so that the position of a selected point and his bearing correspond to user settings.
Software documentation is published only in Czech language.
EasyNET documentation (in Czech)
EasyNET Non-commercial is provided only for scientific and educational purposes, i.e. it cannot be used for commercial purposes. This version processes any number of measurement values and network points.
Non-commercial version (including demonstration data) download links below
EasyNET Non-commercial CZ
EasyNET Non-commercial EN